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Section three challenges academics and practitioners to identify the best practices that shape the daily activities of practitioners. Section four looks at the fascinating and daunting challenges the new communication technology pose for scholars and practitioners. Section five takes a global view, examining theories in international public relations as well as the trends in practice that will shape the field in the coming years.

Past, Present and Future. The Good Organization Communicating Well. A Reconstructed Theory Revisited. Implications for Public Relations. An Argument for Communitarianism. New Theoretical Frameworks for Practice. Organizing and Chaos. A Critical Response. Public Relations' Most Important Challenge. An Overview and Discussion of Issues for the 21st Century. Theory and Practice. Instruments Applicable to Public Relations.

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Learning Best Practices from Experience and Research. A Review of Some Best Practices. A Vigilant Response to Technological Crises. When an Organization Speaks in Defense of Itself. Figure 4.

The Public Relations Handbook by Alison Theaker

Externally management 43 communication is about communicating organisational vision to win the support of 44 external stakeholders. This 47 includes identifying customer needs. Most of these activities Van Riel states to be within the remit of public relations. The second question would require a list covering several 13 pages and that would be inappropriate here. Many of the channels used are described 14 later in this book, but some of the most commonly used in public relations are the 15 media, conferences and exhibitions, direct literature, sponsorship, in-house journals, 16 corporate identity programmes, special events, corporate advertising and the internet.

He suggests that each channel be borne in mind 2 when an organisation considers communicating with its publics. This model provides a 6 clear demonstration of the scope and complexity of the public relations role. There is no single 13 blueprint for either the structure or the range of activities that should be undertaken, 14 15 and priorities will differ in every organisation.

New, fast growing and turbulent sectors such 23 as the dot. Neither type of environment requires the public relations effort to be more 25 or less strategic, but the speed of development and the in-built capability to change 26 direction quickly will be more of a prerequisite in the latter. A manufacturer or 28 retailer of fast-moving consumer goods could well require a heavier marketing commu- 29 nication focus whereas working for a trade or professional body may mean that member- 30 ship communication or lobbying are the primary public relations activities.

The Public Relations Handbook - Media Practice

It may even be outsourced to an individual or consul- 40 tancy. The range of activities may well be restricted and undertaken by a public rela- 41 tions generalist. Large organ- 43 isations will have larger public relations departments. A number of factors need to be considered. Some organisations, for example 2 niche manufacturers of space components, may have a limited range of publics. Some organisations have publics that form fairly discrete 5 blocks, for example car dealers have groups of customers, suppliers and employees.

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Some organisations have publics in a wide geographical area or 8 several socio-economic bandings. Others focus on concentrated areas. Employees are an example of a public intimately con- 15 nected with an organisation. Other publics will have a more remote connection — 16 again pressure groups are an example. Usually organisations start small.

The owners know suppliers, customers 27 and employees. The public relations effort will often be one-to-one and the emphasis 28 is often on growth, thus marketing communication will be a priority. At this stage a generalist public relations professional may 31 be engaged to raise awareness of the company, its products and services. Internally, 32 the formal communication programme may begin. Now the organisation is likely to be well established.

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Employee communication is likely to be well devel- 39 oped, community relations will be a part of the agenda as the organisation takes on 40 a corporate social responsibility agenda and developing and maintaining a cohesive 41 corporate identity will be a priority. The in-house department of several staff, usually 42 with specialisms, could well be complemented by engaging public relations consul- 43 tancies to work in such areas as government affairs and investor relations. Open organisations usually avoid decline by adjusting their activities or 45 moving into new areas.

However, organisations do move into periods of temporary 46 or permanent decline, for example through takeover, legislative change or bad 47 management. Here public relations has a key role to play in identifying issues in 48 the environment in order to avert crises. Ultimately, there is nothing public relations 49 can do if a business is non-viable. However, it is possible to exit with dignity and with reputation intact, and public relations has a key role to play. To most marketers public relations means 23 publicity, that is, obtaining usually media coverage in support of products and services.

Marketing has broadened its parameters to include 30 relationships with internal customers employees and the broader external stakeholder 31 community. Even so, different professional outlooks 34 do maintain diverse perspectives which are of value to organisations. What is obviously clear is that internally there needs to be 39 a clear understanding of the roles of each discipline and where the responsibilities lie.

However, 44 there is rejoicing when a public relations professional is made a chief executive or 45 director of corporate communications with marketing as a subservient partner. What 46 is good for public relations is that as many people as possible from as many disciplines 47 as possible are aware of the contribution that public relations can make in both strategic 48 and tactical ways. It is a sign that public rela- 4 tions has come of age that its unique contribution in stakeholder relations is recognised.

It is true that the dialogue skills that public relations staff acquire with 9 a range of stakeholder groups will be invaluable, but organisations also need to sell or 10 obtain support for their products and services to survive. A good general reputation, 11 often maintained through sustained public relations activity, will attract customers and 12 users of services.

Good service and products enhance reputation. Organisations need 13 both marketing and public relations.

Media Studies - Public Relations Programs at Humber

The communication aspects of these matters, including 22 how to communicate with employees and external stakeholders, would normally 23 involve public relations expertise. Control of employee communication and the division 25 between what is rightly communicated by human resources and public relations are 26 areas of potential debate. This might involve communication with employees who are 28 located within the local community and also with potential employees, and again 29 require careful assignment of responsibility for communication.

Lawyers are concerned that what is said may rebound on the organisa- 42 tion and often point out that there is no requirement to say anything. They value openness and 49 want to maintain dialogue. They are also acutely aware of the need to respond quickly to given situations — again the legal process usually takes time. Product recalls and libel cases usually include both 3 a public relations and a legal dimension and it is not uncommon for legal representa- 4 tives and public relations professionals to speak on the same issue for an organisation.

As expert boundary-spanners, public relations professionals can play a key role 13 in the dominant coalition by gathering and interpreting information from the external 14 and internal environments and presenting this as strategic intelligence. On the basis of 15 this, organisations can adapt and change or initiate a dialogue so that the continued 16 support of their key stakeholding publics can be assured.

This 24 has clearly demonstrated the variety of range and emphasis that public relations can 25 have and has indicated the panoply of skills the expert practitioner requires. In short there is a call for 29 genuine public relations within the management context. Indeed, Cutlip et al. They go on to suggest that the latter contributes to making the democratic 24 process more effective. Private 40 income was necessary as the professions offered little pay. Later, specialised know- 41 ledge became the basis for entry Cutlip et al.

Most of its practitioners have little training in the 32 social sciences. Few have been trained in public relations. We must admit that 33 many people today who call themselves public relations practitioners still do not 34 measure up to professional standards. They also have a set of values 40 and a code of ethics that discourage the use of their knowledge and technical skills 41 for antisocial purposes.

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Years of training are necessary to become a doctor, lawyer or accountant, 5 followed by more years of on-the-job training. The Commission on 12 Public Relations Education recommended that the content of undergraduate and post- 13 graduate courses should include mass communications, PR theories, media relations 14 techniques, research methodology, case studies, work placements and PR management 15 Cutlip et al. A further commission in added ethics, law and evaluation to 16 the list IPRA This was updated by the work of the Public Relations Education Commission set up by the Public Relations Society of America PRSA in , which 18 looked at the knowledge and skills which should be included in undergraduate and 19 postgraduate courses.

We 28 also strongly recommend [teachers] to continue to develop their professional experi- 29 ence while they hold teaching appointments. It was felt that this would raise the status of the profes- 38 sion in general, as well as that of the Institute. The IPR moved towards tightening its 39 entry requirements. Using this matrix as a base, the IPR approved six courses in , including 45 vocational, undergraduate, postgraduate and masters programmes in the UK.

Since then, the number of approved courses has risen to eighteen. Mindful of the need to maintain standards 39 in its delivery, these courses are only available at a few venues again, details on the 40 IPR website. IPR 47 research carried out in found that 98 per cent of senior managers in the industry 48 expected entrants to have a degree IPR This has led to a major initiative to 4 improve the commitment to training within the industry.

The IPR has also started to 5 benchmark the provision of commercial training organisations with its Approved 6 Training Provider kitemark.